Everything You Need To Know About Rugby Scrums!

For those new to rugby, the scrum can be a perplexing yet fascinating aspect of the game. It’s a unique and strategic set-piece that occurs frequently during matches, bringing together the forwards in a dynamic and contested formation. This comprehensive guide aims to answer every question a new rugby fan might have about scrums, from the basic mechanics to the nuanced tactics that make this element of the game both complex and essential.

1. What Is a Scrum?

A scrum is a method of restarting play in rugby that involves the eight forwards from each team binding together in a coordinated formation. The packs, comprised of props, hookers, and locks, engage in a pushing contest to contest possession of the ball.

2. When Does a Scrum Occur?

A scrum is awarded in several situations, including:

  • Forward Pass: When a player passes the ball forward.
  • Knock-on: When a player accidentally knocks the ball forward with their hands.
  • Accidental Offside: When a player is accidentally offside and plays the ball.
  • Some Penalties: Depending on the nature of the infringement, a scrum may be awarded instead of a penalty kick.

3. How Is the Scrum Formed?

The scrum formation involves three rows of players from each team:

  • Front Row: Consists of two props and a hooker from each team. They bind together with their opponents.
  • Second Row: Two locks bind behind the props.
  • Back Row: Comprises two flankers and a number 8, who bind behind the second row.

4. What Is the Bind and Set Process?

The referee instructs the teams to “crouch, bind, and set” in a sequential manner:

  • Crouch: Players assume a crouching position, with their heads and shoulders above their hips.
  • Bind: Front-row players bind together by gripping their opponents’ jerseys.
  • Set: The scrum-half from the team awarded the scrum puts the ball into the tunnel formed by the front rows. The two packs then engage by pushing against each other.

5. What Is the Role of the Scrum-Half?

The scrum-half is a pivotal player during scrums. They feed the ball into the scrum, ensuring a straight and steady put-in. The scrum-half must also be adept at making quick decisions based on how the scrum unfolds, determining whether to release the ball quickly or make a strategic play.

6. Why Do Teams Compete in Scrums?

The primary purpose of a scrum is to restart play in a controlled and fair manner after certain stoppages. It also serves as a contest for possession, allowing teams to compete for the ball without the use of hands or feet.

7. How Is Possession Decided in a Scrum?

Possession is determined by which team successfully wins the ball once it is fed into the scrum. The team with the put-in (the team awarded the scrum) has the advantage, but a well-coordinated push from the opposing team can disrupt possession.

8. What Happens if the Ball Gets Stuck in the Scrum?

If the ball gets stuck in the scrum and does not emerge, the referee may order a reset or award a free-kick to the team that did not put the ball in. This discourages teams from intentionally preventing the ball from coming out.

9. What Is the Objective of Each Team in a Scrum?

For the team with the put-in, the objective is to secure possession quickly and cleanly. The scrum-half aims to feed the ball straight into the scrum so that the hooker can strike it with their foot and the back row can control it.

For the opposing team, the goal is to disrupt the put-in, prevent a clean strike, and potentially win possession or force a mistake from the team with the put-in.

10. How Do Teams Gain an Advantage in Scrums?

Several factors contribute to gaining an advantage in scrums:

  • Technical Ability: The scrum is highly technical, and teams with skilled front-row players who can engage effectively and maintain a strong body position often have the upper hand.
  • Physical Strength: The overall strength of the pack, especially the front row, is crucial. A powerful and coordinated push can destabilize the opposing scrum.
  • Timing and Technique: The timing of the engagement, the hooker’s strike for the ball, and the coordinated push by the entire pack require precise technique and timing.

11. What Is the Role of the Referee in Scrums?

The referee closely monitors the scrum to ensure safety, fair play, and proper engagement. They enforce the “crouch, bind, set” sequence and penalize infringements, such as early engagement, collapsing, or improper binding.

12. What Happens After the Ball Comes Out of the Scrum?

Once the ball comes out of the scrum, play resumes, and teams can continue their offensive or defensive strategies. The team that won possession often has a strategic plan in place for the immediate phases of play following the scrum.

13. Can a Team Choose Not to Engage in a Scrum?

While rare, there are situations where a team may choose not to engage in a scrum. This could be due to concerns about the physical dominance of the opposing team’s pack or a deliberate tactic to slow down the game and disrupt the flow.

14. How Does the Scrum Impact the Flow of the Game?

The scrum is a pivotal element that influences the flow and rhythm of the game. It provides strategic opportunities for teams to gain possession, create attacking platforms, and even win penalties. The scrum also serves as a spectacle for fans, showcasing the physicality and skill of the forward packs.

15. Can a Team Score Directly from a Scrum?

While a team cannot score directly from a scrum, the scrum provides a platform for creating scoring opportunities. Once possession is secured, the team can initiate attacking moves involving the backs and forwards to advance toward the try line.

16. What Happens if a Team Is Continually Penalized in Scrums?

If a team is consistently penalized in scrums due to infringements, the referee may issue warnings, award free-kicks, or even penalties. Persistent issues can result in yellow cards, leading to a numerical disadvantage for the offending team.

17. How Do Teams Train for Scrums?

Scrum training involves a combination of technical drills, strength and conditioning exercises, and live scrummaging sessions. Front-row players work on their binding, engagement, and striking techniques, while the entire pack focuses on coordinated pushing and maintaining stability.

18. What Are the Different Types of Scrum Offenses?

Common scrum offenses include:

  • Early Engagement: Front-row players binding or pushing before the “set” call.
  • Collapsing: The scrum collapsing due to excessive force or improper binding.
  • Not Straight Feed: The scrum-half not feeding the ball straight into the scrum.
  • Popping Up: Front-row players rising from the scrum prematurely.

19. How Does the Scrum Contribute to Team Dynamics?

The scrum is a microcosm of teamwork, requiring cohesion and communication among the forward pack. The success of a scrum depends on the collective effort and synchronization of the front row, second row, and back row. A well-executed scrum not only secures possession but also boosts team morale and cohesion.

20. Are There Differences Between Scrum Engagements in Different Forms of Rugby?

While the basic principles of scrummaging remain consistent, there can be variations in scrum engagements between different forms of rugby. For example, in rugby union, the “crouch, bind, set” sequence is used, while rugby league has a simpler “crouch, touch, pause, engage” process.


The scrum, with its intricacies and physicality, stands as a cornerstone of rugby. As a new fan, understanding the nuances of scrummaging enhances the viewing experience and appreciation for the tactical battles that unfold in this set-piece. From the initial engagement to the release of the ball, the scrum encapsulates the essence of teamwork, skill, and strategy that defines the sport of rugby.

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